150kWh NIO ES6

The 150kWh NIO ES6 is ground breaking for a number of reasons and perhaps 260Wh/kg at pack level is not the most significant.

  • Total energy = 150kWh
    • Usable energy=136.7kWh
    • SoC Window = 91.1%
  • Nominal Voltage = 340 V
    • Voltage range = 408V to 240V
  • Nominal Capacity = 446Ah

This post has been built based on the support and sponsorship from: About:EnergyAVANT Future MobilityQuarto Technical ServicesTAE Power Solutions and The Limiting Factor. 

NIO chairperson and CEO has shared the ES6 will be able to garner 930 km (577 miles) of range on a single charge with the 150 kWh pack. 930km range and an energy consumption of 147Wh/km [2] for the 100kWh version that is 20kg lighter gives a usable battery pack energy of 136.7kWh.

The pack capacity of 446Ah as given by reference 1 doesn’t match the cell capacity of 110Ah and 4 cells in parallel

  • Configuration = 96s 4p
  • Pack Mass = 575 kg
    • Cell Mass = 416 kg
    • Pack-Cells = 159 kg
    • Cell to Pack Mass Ratio = 72%
  • Pack Dimensions = 2062 x 1539 x 185.6 mm
    • Pack Volume = 589 litres

The 159kg mass of the pack when you remove the cells for a 150kWh pack is remarkably good.

Plotting volumetric density versus gravimetric density we see that NIO battery packs are not well packaged with respect to volume.

The Mercedes EQXX leads on volumetric density by a considerable margin.

Charging

With a nominal pack voltage of 337V the fast charge rate will be limited by the maximum current for the charging system.

  • 20 to 80% in 40 minutes

NIO have a battery swap system that allows customers to recharge rapidly and to swap between pack energy capacities. Pack swapping is an interesting way of launching a new battery technology and giving customers confidence.

Hot Swap versus Fast Charge

There are pros and cons with both options. Nio are demonstrating that battery swapping is viable and like by customers. They have also shown that it doesn’t need to be a design constraint with their latest 150kWh semi-solid state pack fitting the existing envelope.

However, the cost of fast charging is roughly equivalent to the cost of the battery swap. Plus you need to pay up-front for the battery swaps. Overall for me this makes the pay as you go fast charging a better option for the average user as a lot of the time you will charge at home, slower but much cheaper.

Cell

The cell is described as a semi-solid state cell from WeLion.

  • Nominal Capacity = 110 Ah
  • Nominal Voltage = 3.55 V
  • Nominal Energy = 390Wh
  • Mass = 1.083 kg

WeLion cell dimensions

The WeLion SHE350-106Ah solid state battery cell is very close in specifications to that used in the 150kWh NIO ES6. The cell is made by Beijing WeLion New Energy Technology Co. Ltd and at ~360Wh/kg is at the leading edge of current 2023 production battery cells.

This cell has a slightly lower energy density at 347Wh/kg.

Metrics

Perhaps more remarkable is the fact that these cells were only coming off the production line at the end of 2022, for a new cell this is a remarkably short time to vehicle launch.

References

  1. NIO’s 150-KWh Battery Pack Reveals Its Secrets Ahead of Schedule in New Owner’s Manuals, autoevolution
  2. 2019 NIO ES6 Specs, Range, Performance, ECARSRANGE.com
  3. NIO finally adds its solid-state battery to user manuals, arrival of 930 km range option imminent, electrek
  4. Jerry Wan, Welion 360Wh/kg Solid State Battery Analysis, LinkedIn

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