2022 Volvo Truck Battery

We are gradually piecing together information around the 2022 Volvo Truck Battery. This is very much a modular battery pack that has been designed to cover a range of applications. This has been achieved by having 2 battery pack designs. These packs are also shared with Volvo Penta.

Note: this benchmark has been assembled using only public available sources all referenced at the bottom of the article.

3 flat packs stacked on top of each other
  • Medium Duty Applications
  • Total energy = 66kWh
    • Usable energy ~
  • System voltage = 600V

This is Gen2 of this pack design. Gen1 had a total energy capacity of 50kWh.

6 cube packs arranged to give a total 540kWh
  • Heavy Duty Applications
  • Total energy = 90kWh
    • Usable energy ~63kWh [4]
    • Usable window = 70%
  • System voltage = 600V
  • Weight =505kg [7]
  • Dimensions = 768 x 684 x 668mm [5]

The usable energy is given in reference 4, the vehicle was tested independently over a 345km route and average 1.1kWh/km, giving a usable energy of 345 x 1.1 = 379.5kWh. In this 540kWh test case that is a usable energy of 70.3%.

A very cautious approach to lifetime or ensuring power capability, but means you are paying for 540kWh and only able to use 378kWh. Based on a total battery mass of 3,030kg this means you are carrying 910kg of extra battery.

The approach with these packs is perhaps more obvious when you see the description that Volvo Penta gives to them: “Flat” and “Cube” batteries. This is all about packaging, flexibility and being able to offer a range of capacities.

The cube battery is proven Volvo Group technology that is already being used in Volvo Trucks and benefits from hundreds of thousands of hours of testing and real-world use. As with the flat-pack battery, Volvo Penta will further develop and adapt the Volvo Group’s proven electric platform and combine it with its extensive knowledge and experience of the different applications, environments and climates its customers operate in.

Volvo Penta

A compact overall total power unit design. The side slung battery packs with a flexible configuration and connected in parallel is an approach also being used by Mercedes Trucks, Renault Trucks and in the Iveco Vans.

Flat Batteries

  • Configuration = 3 to 6 in parallel
  • Total energy = 198 to 396 kWh
    • Usable energy ~ ?
  • Charging
    • Power = 22 to 150 kW
    • Time 0 to 80% ~ 2 to 10 hours

Cube Batteries

  • Configuration = 2 to 6 in parallel
  • Total energy = 180 to 540 kWh
    • Usable energy = 126 to 378 kWh
  • Power
    • 2 to 3 motors
    • Continuous motor power = 180 to 540kW
    • Assuming 90% efficiency the battery continuous power = 200 to 600kW
  • Charging
    • Power = 43 to 250 kW
    • Time 0 to 100% ~ 2 to 10 hours

Cells

The pack uses modules supplied by Samsung SDI that itself uses Samsung SDI 21700 cells with NCA chemistry [1]. A very conservative 70% usable state of charge window will be being enforced to achieve the lifetime and power requirements.

The weight is given by Volvo Trucks [6] as around 500kg (reference 7 gives the mass as 505kg) and the packs uses up to 4500 cells. Considering that we know this pack uses Samsung 21700 cells [1] and that they have a maximum energy of 18Wh that would give a total capacity of 18Wh x 4500 = 81kWh. Something is incorrect here as a 90kWh battery pack would require 5,000 cells of this capacity. For the calculations we assume 5,000 cells.

Metrics

  • Gravimetric energy density, pack = 178Wh/kg
    • Cell = 261Wh/kg
  • Volumetric energy density, pack = 256Wh/litre
    • Cell = 740Wh/litre
  • Gravimetric power density, pack = 198W/kgcont
  • Volumetric power density, pack = 285W/litrecont
  • Cell to Pack mass ratio = 69%

References

  1. Samsung SDI to supply batteries for Volvo’s electric trucks launching in 2022, THEELEC
  2. Any Truck, All Electric, Volvo Trucks
  3. Volvo Penta expands electromobility offer with cube battery, Volvo Penta
  4. Volvo’s heavy-duty electric truck is put to the test: excels in both range and energy efficiency, Volvo Trucks
  5. Volvo Penta launches new cube battery, Volvo Penta
  6. Battery packs for heavy-duty electric vehicleshttps://www.volvogroup.com/en/news-and-media/news/2022/may/battery-packs-for-electric-vehicles.html, Volvo Trucks
  7. FAQ about electric trucks, Volvo Trucks

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