Electrolyte Additives

Electrolyte additives are used for a number of functions, including:

  • improved SEI formation
  • reduce irreversible capacity loss and gas generation
  • enhance thermal stability of LiPF6 
  • protect the cathode material from dissolution and overcharge
  • improve the physical properties of the electrolyte
    • ionic conductivity
    • viscosity
    • wettability

This is a huge subject area and hence the aim of this page is to start a list of additives:



DTD (1,3,2-Dioxathiolane 2,2-Dioxide) –

FEC (fluoroethylene carbonate) –

LFO (lithium difluorophosphate) – used in conjunction with PDO to improve cycle life [1].

LiBOB (lithium bis(oxalate)borate) –

LiDFDOP (Lithium difluoro (dioxalato) phosphate) – also called as lithium difluoro(bisoxalato)phosphate (LiDFBOP)

LiDFOB (Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate) –

LiTFOP (lithium tetrafluoro(oxalato)phosphate) –

PDO (3-phenyl-1,4,2-dioxazol-5-one) – shown by Jeff Dahn’s group [1] to improve high temperature storage and cycle life of nickel content cells.

VC (vinylene carbonate) –


  1. Dongxu Ouyang, Wentao Song, Kyoungho Oh, K. W. Ahn, David S. Hall, Toren Hynes, Jian Wang4 and Jeff Dahn, The 3-phenyl-1,4,2-dioxazol-5-one (PDO) Electrolyte Additive for Li(Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2)O2 and Li(Ni0.8Mn0.1Co0.1)O2 Lithium-Ion Cells, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Volume 169, Number 4
  2. Wentao Song, Roby Gauthier, Tina Taskovic, Dongxu Ouyang, Harrison A. Ingham, Ahmed Eldesoky, Saad M. Azam, Eniko S. Zsoldos, Zhe Deng, Dylan H. Heino, Chenxi Geng, Rowan Sidebottom and J. R. Dahn, Lithium Difluoro(dioxalato)Phosphate as an Electrolyte Additive for NMC811/Graphite Li-ion Pouch Cells, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2022 169 110513
  3. Sheng Shui Zhang, A review on electrolyte additives for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 162, Issue 2, 2006