There is a battery pack density fundamental limit and that is the cell density. Obviously, but how close can we get to that limit?

The following plot shows the pack gravimetric energy density plotted versus the cell gravimetric density. Added to this dataset is the fundamental limit.

If we calculate the ratio of this we get an interesting metric, but we get exactly the same ratio as if we were to calculate the cell to pack mass ratio.

- 90% (515 / 575kg) BYD Han 2023
- 84% (197 / 235kg) BMW i3 2013
- 76% (211 / 278kg) BMW i3 2018
- 76% (549 / 727kg) ZEEKR 001 140kWh
- 72% (416 / 575kg) NIO ES6 150kWh
- 66% (294 / 445kg) Tesla Model Y 4680

Hence, an interesting ratio, but the same as we already use.

What this does show is how we can use values available in benchmarking to approach estimations from a different viewpoint. This is really useful when only some values are published.

This post has been built based on the support and sponsorship from: **About:Energy**, **AVANT Future Mobility**, **Quarto Technical Services**, **TAE Power Solutions **and **The Limiting Factor**.** **

#### Battery Pack Database

You too can plot this data and look at different relationships with our battery pack database. Here we have given a glimpse of the data, but you can purchase it and download it immediately to investigate and benchmark the competition.