Benchmarking battery pack

Benchmarking a battery pack data by specification? Whenever you look at a new design of battery pack it is important to do some benchmarking of that design in the context of other battery packs. Any new pack will be measured against some key pack metrics and hopefully using a standard list of benchmarking data. Hence a key part of is to collect together material by standard benchmarking specification for some of the important battery packs.

battery pack mass versus total energy for all packs in the database and BMW picked out in red

The battery pack database is now available as an excel file via a download. This is $25 and gives high level data for a number of battery packs (see page for details).

Benchmark your design against the market and create plots easily.

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Audi etron GT quattro
Porsche Macan EV PPE Platform


  • AVATR 12
    • 2024 AVATR 12 – a confusing set of images and data for this battery pack design.


  • i3 – this electric vehicle with optional range extender has steadily improved in battery capacity with the cell developments from Samsung SDI supporting the progress.
    • 2013 BMW i3 – the first generation of this EV and Range Extended EV.
  • GEN 5 Battery System – maximises number of cells per module, reduced number of modules and prismatic cell.
    • 2021 BMW iX3 – the first vehicle off the Gen5 electrification platform.
    • BMW i4 – pure EV
    • BMW i5
    • BMW i7
  • GEN 6 Battery System – this introduces the 4695 and 46120 cylindrical cells, due to be launched in 2025.
BMW i3 60Ah battery
BMW iX3 vehicle in CAD


  • 2022 BTCC Hybrid Battery – an impressive MHEV battery pack designed by Delta Cosworth to hybridise the touring cars over 3 seasons of racing.


  • Blade – the cell to pack design based on LFP that achieves 150Wh/kg at launch. Used in the BYD Han.
    • The Blade cell was originally designed to enable Cell to Pack design, but has now been taken a step further with the Cell to Body approach.
  • e-Platform 3.0 – vehicle platform that takes the Blade technology to the next level with a Cell to Body approach.
    • Seal
    • Seal U
  • Shark PHEV – 29.58 kWh Blade battery pack.
  • e-Platform 4.0 – likely to be the basis for the electric vehicles from the end of 2024.


  • Qilin CTP 3.0 – CATL’s latest design for cell to pack. CATL suggests that this integrated system can increase the energy density to 255Wh/kg for ternary battery systems (NMC, NMCX etc), and 160Wh/kg for LFP battery systems.
    • Shenxing – LFP chemistry with a 4C charge rate and all bundled into the CTP pack design


  • Dacia Spring Extreme 65hp and Essential 45 hp with 26.8 kWh battery Pack.


Formula E

GAC Aion

  • Y Plus – the 2022 vehicle with the larger NMC battery pack made by CALB.
  • Ultium – the new battery pack architecture from which GM will develop 30 new EV’s with a total volume of 1 million cars a year by 2025.
    • GMC Hummer EV – the first vehicle that uses the Ultium battery architecture.
    • Chevrolet Silverado EV – the 2024 line up shows that this vehicle is likely to get 3 battery capacities.


  • Honda e – Honda’s first EV urban vehicle.
  • e:Ny1 – all electric SUV from Honda


  • Ioniq5
    • 2024 Hyundai Ionic 5 N has revised battery chemistry to increase it to 84kWh. The battery operates at a nominal 697V and can deliver a peak of 585kW.
  • Kona


  • Sehol E10X Sodium Ion – a VW/Seat joint venture with Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Corp. Ltd. (JAC) in China. They have used a Hina Sodium Ion battery pack to demonstrate the technology.


  • EV5
  • EV6
    • 2022 Kia EV6 – a really interesting pouch cell and module design that brings the cell in closer contact with the cooling fluid.
  • Niro
    • 2019 Kia Niro – battery pack design and structure shared with the Hyundai Kona. However, where the Kona uses LG cells, the Niro uses SK Innovation
  • Regera – 4.5kWh PHEV battery designed by RIMAC


  • RZ
    • 2023 Lexus RZ 450e – an interesting if perhaps unremarkable offering in terms of the battery pack.
  • UX
  • Air Dream Edition
  • Air Grand Touring
  • Air Touring


  • 2021 Speirling – race car with an 800V and 60kWh battery pack. We don’t know much about this and hence have made some estimations.
  • eActros Trucks
    • eActros 300 and 400 – 2 and 3 axle electric trucks using a modular battery pack design
    • eActros LongHaul – 600kWh in 3 packs and a change to LFP from NMC used in the previous eActros packs
    • HPB80 & HPB150 – dielectric cooled 21700 based pack design.
  • EQ – the new all electric cars from Mercedes
    • 2021 EQA 250 – compact FWD SUV
    • EQB
    • EQC
    • EQE
    • 2021 Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ – performance luxury electric vehicle offering from Mercedes.
    • EQS-SUV
    • EQV – V for Van
    • EQXX – Cell to Pack design for the Mercedes Vision EQXX battery is just one of the aspects that make this an interesting vehicle. OK, this is a research vehicle designed to push the envelope.
  • MG Rubik’s Cube Battery – the SAIC MG Rubik’s Cube battery is an interesting battery pack design. A rectangular and flat section pack designed to work in the Nebular vehicle platform. This platform covers a lot of vehicles from A-class to D-class and saloon, SUV, MPV and sports.
  • ES6
    • ES6 150kWh – semi-solid state cells from WeLion delivering 260Wh/kg at pack level
  • Ariya
  • Leaf
    • 2010 Leaf 24kWh – the iconic EV first produced in December 2010
    • 2015 Leaf 30kWh – the upgrade in energy was achieved with the LG Chem 43Ah cell and an increase in the number of cells in a module from 4 to 8.
    • 2017 Leaf 40kWh
    • 2019 Leaf 62kWh


  • Nevera – a 1.4MW battery is no mean feat of engineering.
  • SineStack – this is Rimac’s first move into grid storage.
  • R1T – A Nice compact 144 kWh Battery pack with 9 Modules (7776 Cells) 21700 Samsumg 50G.


  • Nexeon
    • Nexon EV Prime 30.2 kWh and Max 40.5 kWh.
  • Prius
    • Prius 2004 Gen 2 battery pack (1.3kWh NiMh) – this was in the 2004 Prius and is an old pack design, but based on the number of packs made and the success of the Prius HEV this is an important design and benchmark.
  • Mirai
    • Mirai 2020 battery pack (1.24kWh Li-Ion)
  • All-Solid State – vehicle licensed for road use August 2020


  • Theon S – electric 2 wheeler from Vietnam with an LFP Gotion based battery.
  • VF3
  • MEB Platform – Volkswagen ID Family cars such ID 3, 4, 5, 7, Buzz are based on a Modular electric drive matrix (MEB) Chassis. This Chassis contains the battery pack built into the floor for optimal weight distribution.
  • PowerCo Unified Cell – a vision from VW to simplify it’s battery packs with one cell design that works across more than 80% of it’s products.
    • Gotion L600 LMFP Astroinno – it appears that VW have signed up to use this cell and hence question is whether this is part of their “Unified Cell” vision.



  • SU7 Max Battery – launch Xiaomi SU7 battery is made by CATL and appears to be the Qilin approach with Xiaomi integrating this as a Cell to Body (CTB) design.

Xpeng Motors

  • Introduces Revolutionary SEPA 2.0 EV Architecture. Debuting on the G6 SUV


  • Zeekr 007 LFP battery – also described as the “Golden Brick Battery” pack.
  • Zeekr 140kWh CATL Qilin – a number of interesting design features and we need to see more details to fully understand how the cell vent gas is managed.
Zeekr 007 Golden Brick Battery
CATL Qilin battery pack exploded view
CATL Qilin battery pack