Battery Management System

Battery Management System (BMS) controls the battery pack and declares the status of the battery pack to the outside world. An introduction to the BMS gives a high level overview and connections to the system.

SoC from OCV lookup

SoC Estimation Techniques

A look at the estimation of State of Charge (SoC) using voltage profiling and coulomb counting. These two methods give a good overview of the difficulty and errors associated in estimating this critical battery parameter.

cells in series recharge

Cell Balancing

If we look at the simple case of 3 cells in series we can see one of the requirements for the BMS. A need to balance the Ah between cells in a series string.

cell balancing

Fundamentally there are two approaches to cell balancing.

  1. Passive balancing
  2. Active balancing

BMS Hardware Suppliers

There are a number of suppliers of BMS worldwide who design and build systems for single cell all the way up to complex managed BMS systems that can control very large grid based battery systems.

Functional Safety

  1. detailed analysis of the intrinsic hazards of lithium-based batteries
  2. hazard and risk assessment of the automotive lithium-based battery
  3. address the specific risks deriving from the automotive application
  4. safety goals to required to keep the battery under control
  5. safety requirements for the hardware design 


  1. Lelie, M.; Braun, T.; Knips, M.; Nordmann, H.; Ringbeck, F.; Zappen, H.; Sauer, D.U. Battery Management System Hardware Concepts: An Overview. Appl. Sci. 20188, 534.
  2. Marcos, D.; Garmendia, M.; Crego, J.; Cortajarena, J.A. Functional Safety BMS Design Methodology for Automotive Lithium-Based Batteries. Energies 202114, 6942.