## Kalman Filter

This content aims to deliver a simple example of the use of the Kalman Filter without mentioning complex mathematics, further linking to the battery state estimation problems. Imagine that we are pilots in a manual aircraft flying in a one-dimension direction, delivering a box of medicines to a tiny island in the middle of the … Read more

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## Sources of Error with the Coulomb Counting Method

It is really important to understand the sources of error with the coulomb counting method as this forms the backbone for most SOC estimation algorithms. SoC Estimation by Coulomb Counting is based on the measurement of the current and integration of that current over time. There are five main sources of error with the coulomb … Read more

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## Thermocouple vs Thermistor

Looking at the thermocouple vs thermistor for temperature sensing in the world of battery design. Cell temperature is a critical parameter. Although you might not be able to measure every cell, you need to measure a few in order that you can estimate the maximum and minimum. Thermocouple A thermocouple functions based on the Seebeck … Read more

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## Remaining Useful Life

What is Remaining Useful Life (RUL)? Remaining Useful Life (RUL) is a key function declared by the battery management system. As per the title it gives you the remaining predicted lifetime of the battery based on its usage and degradation to the failure threshold [1]. It represents the period from the observation to the end of life … Read more

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## In the Cloud

Intelligent Battery Management Systems Battery Management Systems (BMS) are crucial for optimizing the operation of batteries by monitoring and controlling key parameters. Through real-time measurements of voltage, current, and temperature, BMSs can predict a battery’s performance, aiding in making informed decisions to enhance its lifespan and charging efficiency. The core functionalities include: These capabilities of … Read more

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## Cell Balance and End of Life

In any battery pack design it is only as strong as the weakest link [4], one bad cell or group of cells in the series string will control the total power and energy available from the pack. This means it is important to match the cells and to keep them balanced throughout the lifetime use … Read more

Categories BMS

## Cell Temperature Sensing

Cell temperature sensing is a critical function of any Battery Management System (BMS) this is because the cell temperature needs to be kept within a band to maintain safe operation. This band is narrower still to maintain the lifetime of the cell and hence reduce ageing. Cell Temperature For each cell the manufacturer will define … Read more

## Centralized BMS

The centralized BMS has embedded all general functions (cell Voltage/Temperature/Series Current sensing, cell balancingâ€¦ ) in a single control module/board, and was widely applied on smaller battery packs for commercial vehicles. The advantage of centralized architecture is reduced electronic component costs without slave PCBs required. Another advantage is accuracy, as centralized BMS use the same … Read more

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## Master and Slave BMS

Decentralized BMS Architecture is split into one main controller (master) and multiple slave PCB boards. Consist of several equal units, which provide the entire functionality locally and autonomously. Each of the individual BMS units is able to operate independently of the remaining ones. Communication lines between the units enable information exchange and task coordination between … Read more

Categories BMS

## Emergency Shutdown

There can be a number of reasons to do an Emergency Shutdown of a battery pack and a number of approaches to this. Hence interesting to layout and discuss this topic. It should be noted that we are discussing the BMS opening the contactors. The main reasons for an emergency shutdown are: Each of these … Read more

Categories BMS