Centralized BMS

The centralized BMS has embedded all general functions (cell Voltage/Temperature/Series Current sensing, cell balancing… ) in a single control module/board, and was widely applied on smaller battery packs for commercial vehicles.

The advantage of centralized architecture is reduced electronic component costs without slave PCBs required. Another advantage is accuracy, as centralized BMS use the same offsets for all cells. The clearly defined coordination structure provides effective system control.

The drawbacks of such topology are more complex wiring which could cause a higher short circuit risk. Moreover, the main battery controller could lose all battery cell information once a failure or malfunction occurs during operation.

Due to the less flexibility and scalability of the system, the maximum number of cells in the system is strictly pre-defined in the system development stage. In other words, adding additional cells to the pack is impossible since the BMS input pins are mapped to each corresponding cell from the initial design.

Some good centralized BMS examples are the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu ECO, 2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid 2.0, and 2011 Nissan Leaf.

Read more on BMS on our page, a snippet below.

Battery Management System

Battery Management System (BMS) controls the battery pack and declares the status of the battery pack to the outside world. An introduction to the BMS gives a high level overview and connections to the system.

The Battery Management System (BMS) is the hardware and software control unit of the battery pack. This is a critical component that measures cell voltages, temperatures, and battery pack current. It also detects isolation faults and controls the contactors and the thermal management system. The battery management system protects the operator of the battery-powered system and the battery pack itself against overcharge, over-discharge, overcurrent, cell short circuits, and extreme temperatures.

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