Prelithiation introduces extra active lithium ions through various lithium sources. These extra lithium ions contribute to the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), hence improving the delivered energy density of the cell.

When a lithium ion battery is formed after assembly, SEI on the anode is made. This consumes a large amount of lithium ions and results in a low initial coulombic efficiency and severe decay of energy density. Typically 5 to 15% of the capacity of the cathode is consumed in these reactions when a commercial graphite anode is used. For the case of silicon-based anodes, the lithium loss could more severely impair the energy density.


  1. Yang, C., Ma, H., Yuan, R. et al. Roll-to-roll prelithiation of lithium-ion battery anodes by transfer printingNat Energy 8, 703–713 (2023)
  2. Yi Cui, Pre-Lithiation of High-Capacity Battery Electrodes, Stanford University SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
  3. Xueqing Min, Gaojie Xu, Bin Xie, Peng Guan, Mingliang Sun, Guanglei Cui, Challenges of prelithiation strategies for next generation high energy lithium-ion batteries, Energy Storage Materials, Volume 47, 2022