Busbars are the main electrical connections between cells, modules and connect all of the HV system to the outlet connector. Normally made from copper or aluminium. Careful consideration needs to be taken:
- Cross-sectional area
- Creepage and clearance
- Thermal impact on other components
- Joints between busbars
- Electrical isolation
- Mechanical restraints
- Expansion and contraction
Electrical grade aluminum busbar material also known as ec grade aluminum busbar. Compared to copper busbars aluminium offers a weight and cost save, but requires an increase in cross-sectional area of ~62%. Hence aluminium busbars need more volume for packaging.
The red circles show data from 3 electric vehicle battery busbars. The current is an estimated continuous rating and plotted versus the cross-sectional area in mm2.
The gradient of the “straight line fit” shows that 6A/mm2 is a rough estimate for copper busbar size.
Whether the busbars are for the cell to cell interconnects or the main busbars connecting the cells to the contactors, fuses and out to the connectors they all need careful design and manufacture.
- Guidance on Busbar Design and Installation – this is perhaps the foremost reference manual on copper busbar design, written and updated by the Copper Development Association
- Busbars and distribution – distribution standards, sizing busbars, shapes of busbars, distribution blocks and choice of products, Legrand, 2009
In the case of cylindrical cells it is possible to connect to both the positive and negative terminals of the cell on the top surface.
The result is a simplified busbar that gets repeated through the module/pack.
Thus leaving the bottom of the cell free for cooling.
Whether prototyping or creating busbars for production runs we often want high quality parts and this is where photo etching comes into it’s own.
Advanced Chemical Etching take us through the process of photo etching and how this can be used to create high quality aluminium or copper parts.
We are concentrating on busbars, but let your imagination run with what this process could allow you to do.