IP Ratings

IP Ratings or Ingress Protection ratings are designed to rate and grade the resistance of enclosures of electric and electronic devices against the intrusion of dust and liquids. Plus how easy it is for individuals to access the potentially hazardous parts within the enclosure.

The IP rating used for battery packs depends on the specific application and environmental conditions that the battery pack will be exposed to. In general, a battery pack used in an indoors, maybe in a factory environment would not require a high IP rating, whereas a battery pack used in an outdoor or harsh environment may require a higher IP rating.

eg: if the battery pack is intended for use in outdoor equipment, it may require a minimum of IP65 or IP66 rating to protect against water and dust ingress.

On the other hand, if the battery pack is intended for use in off-highway equipment, it may require a higher IP rating such as IP68 or even IP69K to protect against water immersion and high-pressure water jets.

The IP rating system consists of two digits. The first digit represents the degree of protection against the intrusion of solid objects, while the second digit represents the degree of protection against the intrusion of liquids.

First Digit (Solid Protection):

  • 0: No protection against solid objects
  • 1: Protection against solid objects larger than 50mm in diameter
  • 2: Protection against solid objects larger than 12.5mm in diameter
  • 3: Protection against solid objects larger than 2.5mm in diameter
  • 4: Protection against solid objects larger than 1mm in diameter
  • 5: Dust protected (limited ingress of dust is permitted)
  • 6: Dust-tight (no ingress of dust is permitted)

Second Digit (Liquid Protection):

  • 0: No protection against liquids
  • 1: Protection against vertically falling droplets (e.g., condensation)
  • 2: Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15 degrees from vertical
  • 3: Protection against direct sprays of water up to 60 degrees from vertical
  • 4: Protection against water sprayed from all directions (limited ingress permitted)
  • 5: Protection against low-pressure jets of water from all directions (limited ingress permitted)
  • 6: Protection against high-pressure jets of water from all directions (limited ingress permitted)
  • 7: Protection against the effects of immersion in water up to 1 meter deep for 30 minutes
  • 8: Protection against the effects of continuous immersion in water under conditions specified by the manufacturer.
  • 9: The device is protected against high-pressure and high-temperature water jets from all directions. In particular, it can withstand water pressure of up to 100 bar (1450 psi) and water temperature of up to 80°C (176°F).
  • 9K: Designed to withstand high-pressure water jets with steam cleaning, which is a common requirement in industries such as food and beverage, agriculture, and transportation.
2015 Nissan Leaf Battery

Nissan Leaf battery is designed to meet IP67

Written based on the support and sponsorship of: AVANT Future MobilityQuarto Technical ServicesTAE Power Solutionsh.e.l group and The Limiting Factor. 

References

  1. IP ratings, International Electrotechnical Commission
  2. IEC 60529:1989+AMD1:1999+AMD2:2013 CSV Consolidated version, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

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