LCA Definitions & Glossary

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is becoming more important as we move towards a circular approach for lithium batteries and at the same time we drive down the overall impact that battery manufacturing, use and end of life has on the planet.

The objective of this page is to list the terms from A to Z.

4R’s – Repair, Reman, Repurpose, Recycle

Battery Passport – part of the new EU Battery Regulation is a requirement for a Battery Passport.

Carbon Footprint – a measure of the direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with all activities in the product’s life cycle


Energy Required to Make a Cell – cell manufacturing process requires ~50kWh/kWh when produced at GWh/year scale. Note that this number does not include the energy required to mine, refine or process the raw materials before they go into the cell manufacturing plant.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions