Lithium Iron Phosphate abbreviated as LFP is a lithium ion cathode material with graphite used as the anode. This cell chemistry is typically lower energy density than NMC or NCA, but is also seen as being safer.
- Voltage range 2.0V to 3.6V
- Capacity ~170mAh/g (theoretical)
- Energy density at cell level ~125Wh/kg (2021)
- Maximum theoretical cell level energy density ~170Wh/kg ~220 Wh/L
The low energy density at cell level has been overcome to some extent at pack level by deleting the module.
The Tesla with CATL’s LFP cells achieve 126Wh/kg at pack level compared to the BYD Blade pack that achieves 150Wh/kg. A significant improvement, but this is quite a way behind the 82kWh Tesla Model 3 that uses an NCA chemistry and achieves 171Wh/kg at pack level.