Lithium Iron Phosphate abbreviated as LFP is a lithium ion cathode material with graphite used as the anode. This cell chemistry is typically lower energy density than NMC or NCA, but is also seen as being safer.
- Voltage range 2.0V to 3.6V
- Capacity ~170mAh/g (theoretical)
- Energy density at cell level ~125Wh/kg (2021)
- Maximum theoretical cell level energy density ~170Wh/kg ~220 Wh/L
Unravelling Benefits, Limitations, and Optimal Operating Voltage for Enhanced Energy Storage, by Christopher Autey
The low energy density at cell level has been overcome to some extent at pack level by deleting the module.
The Tesla with CATL’s LFP cells achieve 126Wh/kg at pack level compared to the BYD Blade pack that achieves 150Wh/kg. A significant improvement, but this is quite a way behind the 82kWh Tesla Model 3 that uses an NCA chemistry and achieves 171Wh/kg at pack level.