The modelling of any battery pack will cover the electrical-thermal performance attributes of the cells. This mathematical modelling is likely to initially be a simple spreadsheet based model, then over time as the data and requirements mature so will the model.
The capacity and resistance differences of cells amplify the inhomogeneity at a system level and results in accelerated aging and degradation.
For the module design, where many cells are in parallel, the BMS typically does not have access to individual cell currents and temperatures.
We aim to predict current, state of health and temperature of each cell in the module (or pack) via modelling the interaction between cell and busbar and weld quality.