Pack Enclosure Materials

A look at battery pack enclosure materials. A number of different materials and construction techniques have been used.

Carbon Fibre

formula e gen 2 battery

The original Formula E battery pack designed and made by WAE for all of the teams to use has a carbon fibre structural case.

Fabricated Aluminium

The VW ID3 has a fabricated aluminium frame and case that uses a mix of formed aluminium sheets and extrusions. This assembly has been welded together.

The BMW i3 housing is just 19.5kg for the base and 4.5kg for the lid.

Pressed Steel

Nissan Leaf 2010 battery

The Nissan Leaf is a good example of a pressed steel upper and lower pack enclosure.


The Ford Mach-E has an Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) lid on the battery enclosure.

The lid of the pack is a composite and based on Munro [1] it is a heavy 14.5kg.


  1. Ford Mustang Mach-E Battery Exposed!, Munro Live