Sodium-ion cells are in the very early stages of mass production, with the first commercial systems being available for purchase in 2023. Some typical characteristics of sodium-ion cells include:
- An energy density of 100 to 160 Wh/kg and 290Wh/L at cell level.
- A voltage range of 1.5 to 4.3V. Note that cells can be discharged down to 0V and shipped at 0V, increasing safety during shipping.
- 20-30% lower cell BOM cost than LFP.
- A wider operating temperature than lithium-ion cells (-20°C to +60°C).
- Typical Energy efficiency 92% at C/5.
The table below provides an overview of some of the companies working around Sodium-ion battery production, and details of their chosen cell designs: