Abbreviations and Jargon in the battery world.
4R’s – this is battery pack Repair, Remanufacture, Repurpose and finally Recycle.
AASB – All Solid State Battery
AC – Alternating Current
ACIR – Alternating Current Internal Resistance is normally the impedance of the cell at 1kHz.
Ah – Ampere hour is an alternative unit of electrical charge. Product of the current strength (measured in amperes) and the duration (in hours) of the current. The quantity of electricity (capacity) of a battery or cell is usually expressed in ampere hours. Unit of battery capacity.
Anode Free – a battery cell where the Anode is formed during the cell formation cycles.
BaaS – Battery as a Service is the name for swappable battery packs. Designing swappable batteries: Swappable batteries inherit outer design, power output and data exchange protocols of their precursors.
BMS – the Battery Management System is the control system that manages and reports out the status of the battery.
BoL – Beginning of Life
C2P – Cell to Pack design that removes the need for physical module parts.
CC – Constant Current
CC-CV – Constant Current-Constant Voltage
CEI – Cathode–Electrolyte Interphase doesn’t exist during normal cycling of a cell, however, it appears during short circuits and when operating a cell at higher voltages.
CID – a Current Interrupt Device is a pressure operated device used to disconnect a cell from the circuit if it fails in some way.
C-rate – a measure of the rate at which a battery is charged or discharged relative to its capacity. It is the charge or discharge current in Amps divided by the cell capacity in Ampere-hours. A 1C rate means that the discharge current will discharge the entire battery in 1 hour.
CSC – Cell Sensor Circuit that brings voltage sensing, temperature sensing and balancing together for a sub-grouping of cells. This then communicates with the BMS master board.
DC – Direct Current
DCIR – Direct Current Internal Resistance is normally measured by applying a current pulse to the cell and measuring the voltage response of the cell.
DoD – Depth of Discharge
DUT – Device Under Test
ECM – Equivalent Circuit Model is one such phenomenological model most widely used in industry to simulate the voltage response for subsequent Battery Management System control and state estimation.
EIS – Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy offers a non-destructive route to in-situ analysis of the dynamic processes occurring inside a battery by measuring the complex impedance.
EoL – End of Life
EVSE – Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment or Charging Station (Can be AC or DC). These are outside the Vehicle either Type 1 or 2 AC in our Home, Office or Public or Type 3 DC Fast Charging Public Stations.
FC – Fast Charging is all about rapidly charging the cell or battery pack in a very short time. Normally this would not take the cell to fully charged as it is all about getting a usable amount of energy into the battery in the shortest time.
HPPC – Hybrid Pulse Power Characterisation
HV – High Voltage battery pack. “High Voltage” means the classification of an electric component or circuit, if its working voltage is > 60 V and ≤ 1500 V DC or > 30 V and ≤ 1000 V AC root mean square (rms).
ICA – Incremental Capacity Analysis is an analysis method used to investigate the state of health. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage. Can be used for a full or a partial cycle.
kWh – kilo Watt hour is 1000 Watt hours and is a unit of energy equivalent to 1000 Watts of power expended for one hour of time.
LCA – Life Cycle Assessment
LEV – Light Electric Vehicle
LFP – Lithium Iron Phosphate
LIB – Lithium-Ion Battery
LMFP – Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate brings a lot of the advantages of LFP and improves on the energy density.
LMO – Lithium Manganese Oxide
LV – Low Voltage is any battery operating below 60V DC.
mAh – milli Ampere-hour is one thousandth of an Ampere-hour (Ah), this is commonly used when stating the capacity of rechargeable batteries used in mobile phones. 1 mAh = 3.6 Coulombs
Na+ – sodium ion cell.
NiMH – Nickel Metal Hydride
Ni-Rich – lithium-ion cells that have greater than 75% Nickel in the cathode.
NMC – lithium ion cell that uses a cathode made of lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide.
OBC – On Board Charger rectifies or converts the AC mains current into DC and sends it to the Battery Pack with a handshake to the BMS that defines charge limits and capability at any point in time.
OCV – Open Circuit Voltage is the no load voltage as measured across the terminals of a cell or even across a pack.
PbA – lead acid battery and commonly used as 12V starter and leisure battery.
RESS – Rechargeable Energy Storage System
RUL – Remaining Useful Life
SEI – is a passivation layer called the Solid Electrolyte Interphase and is formed on electrode surfaces from decomposition products of electrolytes. The SEI allows Li+ transport and blocks electrons in order to prevent further electrolyte decomposition and ensure continued electrochemical reactions.
SOC – State of Charge is defined as the amount of charge in the cell as a percentage compared to the nominal capacity of the cell in Ah.
SOH – State of Health is normally the remaining % of nominal capacity available in the cell. Technically this perhaps should be abbreviated as SOHc and SOHp is the power state of health and is the % of the original power capability of the cell.
SOP – State of Power is published by the BMS and is an estimation of the maximum power that the battery can accept or/and output at the current point in time.
SOX – abbreviation for all of the “State of …” functions that the BMS publishes to the system.
SSB – Solid State Battery