A review of the Solid State Cell Companies and their technology by Dr. Simon Madgwick, Chief Executive Officer, Nuvvon Inc.
Also a Short Introduction to the Reasons to develop a Solid-State Battery by Samsung SDI below. Link to their website and below Reasoning.
Reasons to develop a solid-state battery
Then, why do we need a solid-state battery? It is to increase capacity of EV batteries.
Market research companies expect that EVs will replace ICEVs(internal combustion engine vehicles), and become the mainstream in the auto industry. And to become the unarguable leader in the industry, EV should have the similar level of mileage as the current ICEV, and it is important to increase the battery capacity of an EV battery to do so.
There are two ways to increase capacity. First is increasing the number of batteries. But in this case, the battery price goes up and batteries take up so much space in the vehicle.
A solid-state battery has higher energy density than a Li-ion battery that uses liquid electrolyte solution. It doesn’t have a risk of explosion or fire, so there is no need to have components for safety, thus saving more space. Then we have more space to put more active materials which increase battery capacity in the battery.
A solid-state battery can increase energy density per unit area since only a small number of batteries are needed. For that reason, a solid-state battery is perfect to make an EV battery system of module and pack, which needs high capacity.Short Introduction to the Reasons to develop a Solid-State Battery by Samsung SDI Link to their website and Reasoning.
|24m||https://24-m.com/technology/||Semi-solid cell manufacturing process. Website picture suggest pressure is required to operate and expansion/contraction needs accommodating (spring loaded clamping fixtures)|
|Audiance||https://www.audiance-inc.com/||Very early stage of research and TRL level, appears to be around solid state cells for implantable devices.|
|BasqueVolt||https://basquevolt.com/en||Silicon anode polymer solid-state, not lithium metal compatible, cathode electrolyte unstated, operating pressure unstated, operating temperature unstated|
|Blue Current||https://bluecurrent.com/||Solid ceramic separator, silicon anode (not lithium metal compatible / states lithium to be dangerous), cathode electrolyte unclear, requires high pressure to operate (10 bar)|
|Blue Solutions||https://www.blue-solutions.com/||Lithium metal polymer solid state. Requires high temperature to operate (50-80 deg-C). Low energy density (lower than current Li-ion)|
|BrightVolt||https://www.brightvolt.com/||Polymer solid state, very thin electrodes (<10um) so potentially high power but low energy, operating pressure unstated, operating temperature unstated|
|C4V||https://www.chargecccv.com/||Solid polymer separator with liquid in the cathode requiring an “in-situ cooling loop”, operating pressure unstated, operating temperature and range unstated|
|Factorial||https://factorialenergy.com/||Semi solid state polymer separator using lithium metal, cathode electrolyte unclear, requires high pressure to operate (13 bar), temperature range unstated for cell operation|
|Gangfeng Lithium||http://www.ganfenglithium.com/index_en.html||Ceramic semi-solid-state technology with cooling system and unstated pressure|
|Georgia Tech||https://news.gatech.edu/news/2022/01/12/rubber-material-holds-key-long-lasting-safer-ev-batteries||Rubber-type polymer solid electrolyte – separator only – cathode electrolyte not stated|
|Gotion High Tech||https://www.gotion.com/||Semi-liquid “jelly roll technology”, operating pressure unstated, operating temperature and range unstated|
|Ilika||https://www.ilika.com/||Micro solid state – ceramic separator, high temperature limit, for larger format silicon anode cells cathode electrolyte not stated, pressure not stated|
|Inventus Battery Energy||https://www.inventusbioenergy.com/lab-prototypes/||Lithium metal oxide ceramic solid electrolyte based SSB|
|Ion Storage Systems||https://ionstoragesystems.com/||Micro solid state – ceramic separator ‘sponge’ with lithium metal, ambient pressure, wide temperature range, cathode electrolyte not stated so not obvious if claims are for full cells or scalable for large cells|
|Ionic Materials||https://ionicmaterials.com/batteries/||Polymer solid state separator, not lithium stable, not clear if the solid polymer and can be used in the cathode, pressure unstated, temperature range unstated|
|Johnson Energy Storage||https://www.johnsonenergystorage.com/||Oxy-sulfide glass separator and cathode electrolyte, wide temperature range, process uses molten glass to penetrate cathodes which are thinner than standard, still at lab concept scale|
|LiNa Energy||https://www.lina.energy/||Solid-state sodium batteries, NaNiCl ceramic separator, cathode electrolyte unclear, unstated operating pressure|
|Lion Volt||https://lionvolt.com/||3D architecture targeting small scale wearable batteries|
|Murata||https://www.murata.com/en-eu/s/events/electronica/zone/booth-c04.html||Micro solid state – ceramic separator – cathode electrolyte not stated|
|Nuvvon||https://nuvvon.com/||Polymer solid state separator electrolyte and solid polymer cathode electrolyte, lithium metal anode, operating at ambient pressure across a wide temperature range (-10 to +80 deg C), produced on existing Li-ion process|
|Piersica||https://piersica.com/||Not much detail, separator but unclear regarding cathode electrolyte, unstated operating pressure or temperature range|
|Prieto||https://www.prietobattery.com/||3D polymer solid state, copper foam structure, no performance data|
|ProLogium||https://prologium.com/||Ceramic semi solid state with good low temp operation but limited upper temperature, unstated operating pressure, not lithium metal compatible, low energy density (similar to current Li-ion)|
|QuantumScape||https://www.quantumscape.com/||More transparent than most with data, ceramic semi solid state, ceramic separator but gel cathode electrolyte, requires pressure to operate (3.3 bar), long term issues with process scaleup|
|Sakuu||https://www.sakuu.com/||3D printed battery cells – no data or details available|
|Samsung SDI||https://www.samsungsdi.com/column/technology/detail/56462.html?listType=gallery||Sulfide separator requiring high pressure (20 bar) and heat (60 deg-C) to operate, electrode electrolyte is unclear|
|SES||https://ses.ai/||Polymer hybrid, lithium metal, liquid electrolyte cathode, requiring high pressure to operate (12 bar), upper temperature limitation|
|Sion Power||https://sionpower.com/||Ceramic separator, lithium metal, traditional liquid cathode electrolyte, unstated level of very high pressure to limit dendrite formation, unstated temperature range|
|Soelect||https://www.soelect.com/technology/||Polymer separator, lithium metal, unclear what electrolyte is in the cathode, unstated operating pressure or temperature range at cell level|
|Solid Power||https://www.solidpowerbattery.com/||Sulfide separator requiring very high pressure (unstated) to operate, cathode electrolyte not clear, not lithium metal compatible (silicon anode), operating temperature unclear, hydrogen sulfide risk|
|Solid State Battery Inc||https://www.ssbats.com/||Solid separator using polymer and ionic materials and nano particles – no recent news or data|
|Toyota/Panasonic||https://www.toyota.ie/company/news/2021/solid-state-batteries||Sulfide separator requiring very high pressure (unstated) to operate, not lithium compatible, cathode electrolyte unclear|
|Zakuro Battery||https://www.zakurobattery.com/||solid-state separator technology enables batteries with a lithium metal anode and using existing manufacturing techniques|
If you would like to add to this table or write an in-depth article about one of the chemistries please do drop us a line.
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