LG INR 18650 MJ1

LG Chem 18650 lithium ion cells

LG INR 18650 MJ1 is an 18650 cylindrical cell made by LG, NMC811 cathode and graphite anode with silicon.

Key features

  • 259.6Wh/kg at 23°C
    • 266Wh/kg [6]
  • 736Wh/litre at 23°C
    • 720Wh/litre [6]
  • 965W/kg
  • 2736W/litre

Designed to meet

  • Safety:
  • Transport: UN38.3
  • Quality:
  • Nominal Capacity = 3.5Ah
  • Nominal Voltage = 3.635V
  • Nominal Energy = 12.72Wh
  • Charge
    • Charge cutoff voltage = 4.2V
    • Maximum charge rate = 1.0 C (3400mA)
    • Temperature limits = 0° to 45°C
  • Discharge
    • Cutoff voltage = 2.5V
    • Maximum discharge current = 10A
    • Maximum pulse discharge = 18.9A

Maximum current was based on 50% SoC nominal voltage, cutoff at 2.5V and DCIR of 60mΩ

  • DCIR = 33mΩ
  • Temperature limits = -20° to 60°C
  • Storage temperature
    • 1 month -20 ~ 60℃
    • 3 month -20 ~ 45℃
    • 1 year -20 ~ 20℃
  • Cycle life = 400 cycles [2]
    • see detail ageing test conclusions from EU project

This post has been built based on the support and sponsorship of: Quarto Technical ServicesTAE Power Solutionsh.e.l group and The Limiting Factor. 

X-ray of top section of the LG INR18650 MJ1 cell
Natalie Anderson, Minh Tran, and Eric Darcy, 18650 Cell Bottom Vent: Preliminary Evaluation into its Merits for Preventing Side Wall Rupture, NASA-JSC, S&T Meeting, San Diego, CA, 7 Dec 2016

Dimensions

  • Diameter: 18.4 +0.1 / -0.3 mm (Max. 18.5mm)
    • hole through centre of jelly roll, diameter ~2mm
  • H: 65.0 ±0.2mm (Max. 65.2mm)
  • Volume: 0.0172litres
  • Mass:
    • Maximum = 49.0g
    • Average = 46.8g
  • Cathode
    • nickel (Ni)-rich lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (811)
    • length = 610mm
    • width = 59mm
    • thickness = 0.16mm
  • Anode
    • graphite based with a presence of Si
      • Silicon content ~ 3.5wt% [10]
    • length = 660mm
    • width = 60mm
    • thickness = 0.17mm
  • Case
    • wall thickness = 0.19mm
      • average = 0.165mm [9]
cell mass table for LG INR18650 MJ1

The cell mass is given as a maximum of 49.0g on the specification sheet.

Batemo quote 46.7g for the cell mass. NASA have looked at using this cell in manned space missions, this data table [5] gives a bit more data and a mass of 46.8g

T. M. M. Heenan, A. Jnawali, M. D. R. Kok, T. G Tranter, C. Tan, A. Dimitrijevic, R. Jervis, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing, An Advanced Microstructural and Electrochemical Datasheet on 18650 Li-Ion Batteries with Nickel-Rich NMC811 Cathodes and Graphite-Silicon Anodes, 2020 J. Electrochem. Soc. 167

Cylindrical Cell Electrode Estimation

Knowing the outer and inner diameter of the spiral along with it’s thickness we can calculate the length of the material to create it.

D is the inner diameter of the cylindrical can.

The inner diameter is that of the mandrel around which we wind the spiral.

Test data

  • Maximum discharge current =
  • Short circuit current = A
  • ACIR ≤ 40 mΩ at 1kHz
  • DCIR = 60mΩ [4]
  • Capacity
    • The specification sheet [2] shows a significant capacity temperature dependence
LG Chem INR18650 MJ1 Capacity versus Temperature
  • Ageing
    • The EVERLASTING EU project used this cell for their ageing studies and conducted extensive testing. Their conclusions from their report [1] are shown below:
    • The ageing stress factor investigated in this study are:
      • the environmental temperature during life cycling and during storage where it was shown that high (45°C) and very low (0°C) temperatures increases the ageing rate. This was observed for both calendar and life cycling tests.
      • the cycling C-rate where the charge and discharge currents were varied. It was shown that high discharge rate (3C) led the cell to its EOL in less than 600 equivalent cycles.
      • the cycling window where the two most common ranges were used i.e. 70 to 90%SOC (corresponding to home to work daily trip) and 10 to 90%SOC. This study shows that cycling in a wide SOC window decreases the cells’ lifetime.
      • the storage SOC level. This test simulates the effect of car parking on the cell lifetime. It was shown that high (45°C) and low (0°C) temperatures increases the cell’s ageing rate. And low SOC (10%) has the lowest degradation effect compared to 70% and 90%SOC. However it was shown that compared the cells stored at 90%SOC, the ones stored at 70%SOC has a higher degradation rate. Additional ageing tests were started to better understand this behaviour rand will be reported in later reports and SCI papers.
  • Gas Pressure
    • Hemmerling et al [10] show the gas pressure versus SoC for an LG INR18650 MJ1 cell during a stepped C/3 charge cycle with a relaxation time.

This post has been built based on the support and sponsorship of: Quarto Technical ServicesTAE Power Solutionsh.e.l group and The Limiting Factor. 

Cycling

LG MJ1 cell x-ray image before and after cycling
Heenan et al [11] show a section through the cell before and after cycling.

Safety data

Independent safety tests of the cell.

  • Thermal Runaway
    • energy released = 73.8kJ
    • 80% of energy released through ejected material and gases
TestResultComments
External Short CircuitNo explode, No fire100mΩ-wire for 1 hour (UL1642)
OverchargeNo explode, No fireUL1642
Forced DischargeNo explode, No firedischarged at 0.2C to 250% of the minimum capacity.
CrushNo explode, No fireUL1642
ImpactNo explode, No fireUL1642
Shock
VibrationNo Leakage90 minutes per axis (x, y, z) excursion of 0.8mm, 10Hz to 55Hz and sweep of 1Hz change per minute
Temperature Cycling
Low Pressure
Nail Penetration
External HeatNo explode, No fireUL1642
DropNo leakage, No temperature rise

Known Applications

Please let us know of specific uses of this cell.

Conclusions

In terms of key metrics has a good energy density and ok power density. We would class this as more of a energy cell.

Note: if you have tested this cell independently and able to share data please contact us nigel@batterydesign.net

References:

  1. EVERLASTING = Electric Vehicle Enhanced Range, Lifetime And Safety Through INGenious battery management D2.3 – Report containing aging test profiles and test results February 2020,
  2. Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery Model : INR18650 MJ1 3500mAh, LG Chem
  3. Review and Independent Testing https://lygte-info.dk
  4. T. M. M. Heenan, A. Jnawali, M. D. R. Kok, T. G Tranter, C. Tan, A. Dimitrijevic, R. Jervis, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing, An Advanced Microstructural and Electrochemical Datasheet on 18650 Li-Ion Batteries with Nickel-Rich NMC811 Cathodes and Graphite-Silicon Anodes, 2020 J. Electrochem. Soc. 167 
  5. Eric Darcy, Passively Thermal Runaway Propagation Resistant Battery Module that Achieves > 190 Wh/kg, Sustainable Aircraft Symposium, Redwood City, CA, May 6-7, 2016
  6. Eric Darcy, Safe, High Power / Voltage Battery Module Design Challenges, Battery Show Europe, Stuttgart, Germany, 7-9 May 2019
  7. Performance of Commercial High Energy and High Power Li-Ion Cells in Jovian Missions Encountering High Radiation Environments, NASA Battery Workshop, November 19-21, 2019
  8. Statistical Characterization of 18650 – Format Lithium – Ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energy Distributions, NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, Huntsville, Alabama, 11/14/2017 to 11/16/2017
  9. Natalie Anderson, Minh Tran, and Eric Darcy, 18650 Cell Bottom Vent: Preliminary Evaluation into its Merits for Preventing Side Wall Rupture, NASA-JSC, S&T Meeting, San Diego, CA, 7 Dec 2016
  10. Jessica Hemmerling, Johannes Schäfer, Tobias Jung, Tina Kreher, Marco Ströbel, Carola Gassmann, Jonas Günther, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke, Investigation of internal gas pressure and internal temperature of cylindrical Li-ion cells to study thermodynamical and mechanical properties of hard case battery cells, Journal of Energy Storage, Volume 59, 2023
  11. Heenan, T.M.M., Mombrini, I., Llewellyn, A. et al. Mapping internal temperatures during high-rate battery applications. Nature 617, 507–512 (2023).

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