When a battery is discharging the electrons, e– , move from the – to + terminal and while it is charging the electrons travel from the + to the – terminal. These electrons are generated by the reduction and oxidation reactions (redox) inside the cell. Oxidation is loss (OIL) of electrons and Reduction is gain … Read more

NMC Composition


NMC Composition can be difficult to understand at first and so here is a walk through the compositions and what they actually mean. The 33%,33%,33%, in NMC111 is the composition of Ni, Mn, Co among themselves rather than the compound (Li Nix Mny Coz O2) as a whole.    I have calculated the % m/m of all elements … Read more

Niobium in Batteries


Niobium in batteries looks at the high level addition of this element and some of the claimed and measured improvements to the battery cells as a result. Niobium-Based Anode Toshiba Super Charge ion Battery (SCiB) [5] are developing a Niobium Titanium Oxide anode that will have improved performance over the current LTO products: Downside: Cycle … Read more

Proving new Chemistry

cellerate system

One of the fundamental steps in proving new chemistry is making small cells that can be reliably charged and discharged. These small cells are assembled in argon filled gloveboxes. They are small and very fiddly to assemble. However, they need to be precisely built to reduce variation in data caused from physical mis-alignment of electrodes which … Read more

Cell Sample Maturity

A B C D Sample development

Cell Sample Maturity is normally defined by the A, B, C, D sample definitions. These stages of the cell design, production line development and material supply are key to the relationship between the cell manufacturer and cell customer. The customer needs to have confidence in the cell design, robustness and quality and this is only … Read more