Lithium Rich Manganese

Lithium Rich Manganese (LRM) has a high specific capacity because of both cationic and anionic redox activity and are expected to be developed and applied as cathode materials for a new generation of high-energy density lithium-ion batteries [1]. Quan Li et al [2] show that increasing LRM loading mass to 10 mA⋅h⋅cm−2 (calculated by 300 mA⋅h⋅g−1) and … Read more

Cold Temperature Charge / Discharge

lithium ion cells at cold temperatures

What are the Cold Temperature Charge / Discharge limitations and mechanisms? At cold temperatures lithium ion cells suffer from a significant decrease in available capacity. The DCIR of the cell increases significantly as the temperature decreases. Significantly reducing the available peak and continuous power. This post has been built based on the support and sponsorship … Read more

Measurement of Open Circuit Voltage

open circuit voltage versus SoC for different chemistry

The measurement of Open Circuit Voltage can be time consuming as it needs to be established versus the State of Charge (SoC) of the cell. Doing this in fine steps from 0% to 100%, with the measurement being made “at rest”, means we have to charge/discharge and then let it rest before making the voltage measurement. The … Read more


Ande and cathode deifinition in chemistry

When a battery is discharging the electrons, e– , move from the – to + terminal and while it is charging the electrons travel from the + to the – terminal. Both, during the discharge and recharge electrons move from the Anode to the Cathode. {Anode and Cathode swap places}. These electrons are generated by … Read more

NMC Composition


NMC Composition can be difficult to understand at first and so here is a walk through the compositions and what they actually mean. The 33%,33%,33%, in NMC111 is the composition of Ni, Mn, Co among themselves rather than the compound (Li Nix Mny Coz O2) as a whole.    I have calculated the % m/m of all elements … Read more

Niobium in Batteries


Niobium in batteries looks at the high level addition of this element and some of the claimed and measured improvements to the battery cells as a result. Niobium-Based Anode Toshiba Super Charge ion Battery (SCiB) [5] are developing a Niobium Titanium Oxide anode that will have improved performance over the current LTO products: Downside: Cycle … Read more

Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate


Abbreviated as LMFP, Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate brings a lot of the advantages of LFP and improves on the energy density. Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate (LMFP) battery uses a highly stable olivine crystal structure, similar to LFP as a material of cathode and graphite as a material of anode. A general formula of LMFP battery is LiMnyFe1−yPO4 … Read more

Proving new Chemistry

cellerate system

One of the fundamental steps in proving new chemistry is making small cells that can be reliably charged and discharged. These small cells are assembled in argon filled gloveboxes. They are small and very fiddly to assemble. However, they need to be precisely built to reduce variation in data caused from physical mis-alignment of electrodes which … Read more